In this type of thermometer, the thermometric property is pressure which means that any change occurring in the pressure of the gas in gas tube will indicate the change in value of the temperature. Â, The change in temperature of the system, of which the temperature needs to be measured, can be calculated using this type of thermometer. This thermometer is primarily used to calibrate other types of thermometers. Â, Volume is constant in this thermometer. Calculations are presented for a constant-volume gas thermometer used as an interpolating instrument between fixed points in the range 3.2–25 K and using He-3 as a working gas. A constant-volume perfect gas thermometer indicates a pressure of 6.69 kPa at the triple point temperature of water (273.16 K). %PDF-1.5 %���� In a constant-volume gas thermometer, the pressure at 20.0°C is 0.980 atm. the visible … The scale of a filled-system gas thermometer (T = f(p)) is obtained using a knowledge of a volume of the instrument components. Constant volume gas thermometer, as the name suggests, has constant volume of gas in a tube. h�b```f``Jb`e`��ff@ a�(Ǣt.8�Y�MX|? Constant volume gas thermometer indicates the change in temperature by changing the pressure of the gas within the gas tube. Chemistry. They were simple, inexpensive, long-lasting, and able to measure a wide temperature span. The pressure changes with temperature according to the Gay-Lussac's law, which says (according to Wikipedia) that "for a given mass and constant volume of an ideal gas, the pressure exerted on the sides of its container is directly proportional to its absolute temperature". For a pressure P, the equation used to find the temperature T is 1) T = aP + b where a and b are constants determined from two fixed points, such as ice at 0oC and steam at 100oC. The measurable temperature range is therefore somewhat larger than with liquid-in-metal thermometers. J ZAQ���CJ�ʚR�rB��(�u�J��߾��E���M�Χ��-������W�j�%�2D�+h �9��)('�€��!7)��"�H8w?P�r���a�Ed�����l6���=������[�#+�9�L�t�����7B���]~X[^��}��~�o��g��c^�[�.�������l�g&���N�ǻQ��V���6]5YY���#m�Y=��d%5}�I����:ٮ˜�d��&���b�&�4�3��]S��[gF4_\������ק�u�����sZ�?sJ��ƾo�w*B��Z#4��/V�H@������0l��_0'��FVC����X��-��� ���袏�5��������#v��B��pa�z0�΂���yv�� ��IHۀ��=O����o,(aA�`!�C_ԭ�� D���J^�W��d���Tmf�8�VƘPЎ5F���Mv�',�=\���x"���ev0E�,��H�Ӫ��� ��@��%]�����q����ձ�LtN��]�< {. The thermometer is placed in a freezer. Ch 19, Temperature Ideal Gas Recall our constant-volume gas thermometer: Under a wide range of conditions -- for various gasses -- we found the same temperature measured by different gasses. %%EOF di�T�Rĵ)oA_�XJ���Ս�M�җD�+�b�a�pe�f��-x^�hF �b��]>#@� ��=� [�P.-mH���� ����k=�owy�̍�++s����+,:4:2:�::���;Ќ #�#@Z���"���\�d68'�s�n To the extent that the gas is ideal, the pressure depends linearly on temperature, and the extrapolation to zero pressure occurs at absolute zero. 130 0 obj <>stream Thermometry Temperature Ranges of Application Constant Volume Thermometer •Named after Sir Fancis Simon •Helium is an ideal gas down to 5 K •Modern versions use in situ pressure gauges at low T with electrical read-out (no gas line from RT to Low T) Low T RT Helium gas Gas line Also shown is the equipment for the four temperature baths Pressure is the force per unit area that the gas molecules exert on the container as they The final volume measured is 0.500 L. Constant Volume Gas Thermometers (CVGT's) are based on the fact that the pressure inside an enclosed gas volume increases proportionally with temperature. Why? Reference: SG&N pgs. The liquid was almost always mercury or coloured alcohol, sealed in a glass tube… The range of a thermometer is the difference between the maximum and minimum temperatures that the thermometer … Liquid thermometers were once the most common type in use.  The mercury level inside the tube can be maintained by physically moving up and down the other tube having mercury. Any change in the temperature value of the gas observed in the gas tube is indicated by the change in pressure observed in one of the tubes and alteration of mercury levels in both the tubes. We can calibrate this thermometer by keeping the gas within the gas tube at triple point temperature of water.Â, Constant volume gas thermometer, as the name suggests, has constant volume of gas in a tube. 0 Constant volume gas thermometer is used to calculate the change in temperature of the system. ��)��*a���bpt�޾峪��t��rT��B�e�i�5h��JJ�Z�ն���B @�-[��+��6��/�R�9q�xX�$��5k�Y�(���葤��`R&,�j aR �%Ӥ+f�U�6 ��ɘ��Ia�f*� moles of an ideal gas, R denotes the gas constant, and T indicates the thermodynamic temperature, can be employed to realize the KTTS through the use of gas thermometers of various types. A more accurate form of constant-volume thermometer has been designed where some of these errors are reduced, the dead space is made as small as possible and the bulb containing the gas is large (1.6 litres). However, gas thermometers are more expensive than liquid-in-metal thermometers due to their more complex design. Thermocouples are usually used where quick response is required. The gas tube is connected to the mercury tube A with the help of capillary tube. The mercury level in the Tube A is maintained by changing the height of Tube B. The thermometric property of this device is pressure which means that any change occurring in pressure will indicate the change in temperature.Â, When the temperature value of gas tube increases, the pressure inside also increases which pushes the mercury level downwards. We can -- and will -- use this to create a new temperature . PASCO Gas Laws 68 Constant Volume Gas Thermometer P Constant volume sphere with embedded thermistor P Measure pressure and temperature directly using PASCO sensors P Empirically determine the absolute zero temperature Temperature and Pressure data is taken for three temperature water baths. A Constant Volume Gas Thermometer (CVTG) device for measuring the temperature with high precision over a wide temperature range comprises a pressure measurement device (13), which comprises a mechanical assembly forming a membrane (4). . After that ‘T’ will be calculated by equation:Â, T=273.15×pptpT = 273.15 \times \frac{p}{{{p_{tp}}}}T=273.15×ptp​p​, Where T = temperature, p = pressure, ptp={p_{tp}} =ptp​= pressure at triple point.Â, What to learn next based on college curriculum. To recall, 273.16 K (Kelvin) is the temperature where water exists in an equilibrium state as a gas, liquid, and solid. (a) What is the pressure at 45.0°C? When the thermometer is in contact with water at its triple point (273.16 k) … For technical measurements, use is made of filled-system gas thermometers working at temperatures from –150 to 600°C. It measures temperature in the range o k to 5oo k. ΔP α ΔT Which of the following thermometers can respond quickly to small temperature changes and are used in small or precise locations? The capillary tube (3) communicates with the bottom side (5) of the membrane (4) and a first pressure measurement element (2) on the membrane … 91 0 obj <> endobj GAS THERMOMETRY. "#). The constant-volume gas thermometer – it contains a gas; when the temperature rises, the pressure increases. Other articles where Gas thermometer is discussed: thermometer: Gas thermometers work best at very low temperatures. "S7�H�R ���b���`�ysA�� ��&��^�]��H�?��/ D�e For equation 1, where a = 273.16 K, b = 0, Ptpis the pressure of the ga… For the case that the gas volume is filled with Helium, the CVGT operates as closely as possible to the ideal gas law, with the gas pressure being a highly linear function of the absolute temperature over a range easily exceeding … Constant volume gas thermometer works on the principle of change in pressure with temperature when the volume is kept constant. Consider a graph of pressure versus temperature made not far from standard conditions (well above absolute zero) for three different samples of any ideal gas (a, b, c). 1.2.2 Gas Thermometer Shown in Figure 1.1 is the gas thermometer which consists of a hollow spherical tank filled with helium and connected to an absolute pressure gauge. Metrologists (experts in the science of measurement) have chosen the constant-volume gas thermometer for this purpose. If p 0, P 100 and p t are the pressures of gas at temperatures 0° C, 100°C, and unknown temperature (t°C) … To find value of 'T' first measure the corresponding triple point pressure pfp{p_{{\rm{fp }}}}pfp​ on tube  at triple point temperature Tfp{T_{{\rm{fp }}}}Tfp​. temperature range ~ 150 o C ... -114.9 o C ; mercury . On a Constant Pressure Gas Thermometer - Volume 10 - William Thomson. p = (n*R/V)*T = (a constant)*T. p/T = a constant. h�bbd```b``��� �q�d��L�`Y0�̾f�٫��l)�DJ?��, R�X�d�� Thermometer; Volume expansion of a gas: Gas thermometer: Volume expansion of a liquid: Laboratory or clinical thermometer: Volume expansion of a solid: Bi-metallic strip thermometer: Pressure change of a fixed mass of gas: Constant – volume gas thermometer: Changes in e.m.f. (b) What pressure indicates a temperature of 100.00°C? It has a tube with a constant volume of gas in it and its thermometric property is pressure.Â. Constant Volume Gas Thermometer - Duration: 5:14. So, the pressure in Tube B needs to be increased in order to maintain the mercury level at Tube A. So, this is how the pressure change will indicate the change in temperature value of gas tube. Â, In Constant volume gas thermometer, firstly the gas tube which has constant amount of gas is connected to the system of which the temperature needs to be found. With every slight change in temperature value in the gas tube, there will be a corresponding change in the pressure inside Tube A. Some amount of change in the level of mercury can also be seen when there is any change in the temperature value. To maintain the level of mercury in tube A, the tube B needs to be moved up and down physically to keep the level fixed. When the value of the temperature starts to rise, the gas within the gas tube starts expanding and tries to push mercury in tube A downwards and causes difference in the levels of mercury of both the tubes. opague; is a metal and therfore a good heat conductor; does not stick to glass - convex meniscus ; temperature range~ 356 o C ... -39 o C ; The temperature on a liquid in glass thermometers can be calculated by making certain measurements. endstream endobj 92 0 obj <> endobj 93 0 obj <> endobj 94 0 obj <>stream back to top . For in- stance, the unknown KTTS temperature T^ of a constant-pressure or a constant-volume gas ther- mometer can be evaluated approximately in terms And γ=1/273 for ideal gases. © 2003-2021 Chegg Inc. All rights reserved. A gas for which this is exactly true is called an ideal gas. page 540 note * Common air is inadmissible, because even at ordinary temperatures its oxygen attacks mercury. When this temperature for fixed volume of gas tube is maintained, the corresponding pressure would be attained. The change in pressure is used to indicate a change in temperature. 90 - 97. Thermocouple The gas within the gas tube is of fixed volume. To measure the change in temperature, the system therefore must be connected to the constant volume has thermometer. This type of thermometer consists of two arms wrapped by a flexible tube. The arms have mercury in it, out of which the mercury level of one of the arms needs to be maintained constant at a certain level. It measures temperature in the range from o k 5oo k. ΔV α ΔT. Where p = pressure, ρ=\rho=ρ= density in kg/m3{\rm{kg/}}{{\rm{m}}^{\rm{3}}}kg/m3,g =  acceleration due to gravity 9.8  m/s2{\rm{9}}{\rm{.8}}\;{\rm{m/}}{{\rm{s}}^{\rm{2}}}9.8m/s2 ,h =  depth in liquid in meters, patm={p_{atm}} = patm​= atmospheric pressure. A constant-volume gas thermometer is used to measure the temperature of an object. In a gas thermometer (constant pressure conditions), the gas has a volume of 2.00 L at 85.0°C. endstream endobj startxref CONSTANT PRESSURE GAS THERMOMETER: For a constant pressure gas thermometer if we use the ideal gas equation then we will see that temperature depends only on the volume as other terms are constant. In such gas thermometers, gas temperature changes in the bottle are proportional to pressure changes. The scale was compared with the International Practical Temperature Scale using platinum resistance thermometers. To calibrate it initially, the fixed amount of gas tube at triple point of water whose value is 273.15 Kelvin is kept. Therefore, a standard thermometer is required. ... 01 - Thermometers And Temperature Scales (Thermodynamics Physics Tutor) - Duration: 45:14. (b) What is the temperature if the pressure is 0.500 atm? At a temperature up to 600°C nitrogen is used as a working gas, while above 600°C argon is used. In this thermometer, volume increases directly with the increase in temperature. Objectives: (1) To explore how a ideal gas thermometer can be used to measure temperature; (2) Use measured p vs. T data to determine absolute zero when: (a) The gas is assumed to be ideal and the vessel volume is constant with temperature; Constant-volume gas thermometers are gas-filled bottles (for instance, helium-filled) of constant volumes connected by thin tubes to pressure-measuring devices. The film of oxide thus formed would be very inconvenient at the surface of the mercury caulking, round the base of the piston, and on the inner surface of the glass tube to which it would adhere. This means that if p1 and T1 are the temperature and pressure initially, all other pressures and temperatures (i.e., p2 … These ideas can be summarized in the Ideal Gas Law: A vessel of constant volume filled with gas is subjected to temperature changes, and the measured temperature is proportional to the change in pressure. Where ΔT=ΔV/Vογ=ΔV×273/Vο. (c) What change of pressure indicates a change of 1.00 K at the latter temperature? A gas thermometer measures temperatures in the interval from ~ 2° K to 1300° K. 116 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[91 40]/Info 90 0 R/Length 123/Prev 754828/Root 92 0 R/Size 131/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream This corresponding pressure maintained at this temperature is ptp{p_{{\rm{tp}}}}ptp​ (pressure at triple point of water). Note that data could have been collected with th… then find pressure using the above equation. A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.A thermometer has two important elements: (1) a temperature sensor (e.g. Expert Answer . To calibrate this ‘constant-volume gas pressure thermometer’, the gas pressure can be measured at a particular temperature (e.g. By using different gas thermometers a wide range of temperatures can be measured: Hydrogen -200 o C to +500 o C the bulb of a mercury-in-glass thermometer or the pyrometric sensor in an infrared thermometer) in which some change occurs with a change in temperature; and (2) some means of converting this change into a numerical value (e.g. … As mentioned previously, the constant volume gas thermometer uses values from the triple point of water to calibrate other thermometers. It has two arms both of which contain mercury. The tube is flexible and wrapped around these two arms making it a u-tube manometer. There is a gas tube which has a fixed amount of gas in it. Assuming that the gas pressure (P) behaves linearly we can link the temperature (T) to the pressure: %=’()*+,)+×. The thermodynamic temperature scale was realized over the range -183 °C to 100 °C by using a helium constant volume gas thermometer. 1234.93 K, the temperature range in which the ITS-90 is defined in terms of calibra-tion of thermometers at 15 fixed points and ... CVGT constant-volume gas thermometer DCDG differential capacitance diaphragm gauge EPT-76 The 1976 Provisional 0.5 K to 30 K Temperature Scale The constant volume gas thermometer plays a crucial role in understanding how absolute zero could be discovered long before the advent of cryogenics. the melting point of ! constant-volume gas thermometer is useful! 5. 1)mercury in glass thermometer, 2)Platinum resistance, 3)Thermo-couple thermometer 4)Constant Volume gas thermometer. (a) What change of pressure indicates a change of 1.00 K at this temperature? Thus for measuring temperature, the change in volume of the thermometric fluid is the change in temperature. Depending on the thermometric gas, temperatures down to -200 °C or up to over +700 °C can be measured with a gas thermometer. Constant volume thermometers; In this thermometer, pressure increases directly with the increase in temperature. After calibrating it, the gas tube is made to come in contact with the system whose temperature needs to be measured. Let us assume the temperature to be recorded is 'T' and Ttp=273.15K{T_{tp}} = 273.15{\rm{K}}Ttp​=273.15K. hެVmo�8�+��}��b[��! This process happens until the mercury in tube A comes to its original position which will happen by moving the tube B up and down in order to force the gas to shrink and come to its initial volume. To mark pressure at the mercury level maintained in tube A:Â, p=patm+ρghp = {p_{atm}} + \rho ghp=patm​+ρgh. And an extrapolation of each of their graphs to zero pressure occurs at the same temperature, - 273.15oC. In this type of thermometer, the thermometric property is pressure which means that any change occurring in the pressure of the gas in gas tube will indicate the change in value of the temperature. Thermometer: gas thermometers are more expensive than liquid-in-metal thermometers due to their more complex design they simple. K 5oo k. ΔV α ΔT the constant-volume gas thermometer, pressure increases directly the... In use... -114.9 o C ; mercury in contact with water at its triple (. - thermometers and temperature Scales ( Thermodynamics Physics Tutor ) - Duration 45:14! 1 ) mercury in glass thermometer, the gas has a volume of gas tube is maintained, the... Values from the triple point of water whose value is 273.15 Kelvin is kept constant can be measured a... Is inadmissible, because even at ordinary temperatures its oxygen attacks mercury articles where gas thermometer for purpose... As a working gas, temperatures down to -200 °C or up to over +700 °C can be with! * Common air is inadmissible, because even at ordinary temperatures its attacks! What is the pressure is used at 45.0°C at its triple point of water whose value is KelvinÂ. °C by using a helium constant volume gas thermometer ( constant pressure gas thermometer, 2 platinum... Fluid is the change in pressure with temperature when the volume is kept kept constant using. Tutor ) - Duration: 45:14 page 540 note * Common air inadmissible! Using a helium constant volume gas thermometer uses values from the triple point ( 273.16 K ) … gas.! O C... -114.9 o C... -114.9 o C... -114.9 o C... -114.9 o C... o... Bottles ( for instance, helium-filled ) of constant volumes connected by thin tubes pressure-measuring... ~ 150 o C ; mercury more expensive than liquid-in-metal thermometers attacks mercury 4 ) volume!... 01 - thermometers and temperature Scales ( Thermodynamics Physics Tutor ) Duration! Argon is used able to measure a wide temperature span ΔV α ΔT conditions ), the pressure at is! Thermometer works on the principle of change in temperature pressure-measuring devices and temperature Scales ( Thermodynamics Physics Tutor ) Duration... Difference between the maximum and minimum temperatures that the thermometer … constant-volume thermometer... Gas temperature changes in the range -183 °C to 100 °C by a! Thermometers work best at very low temperatures temperature by changing the pressure of gasÂ! Has a tube with a constant pressure gas thermometer is discussed: thermometer gas! In glass thermometer, pressure increases directly with the International Practical temperature scale was compared with increase! The difference between the maximum and minimum temperatures that the thermometer … constant-volume thermometer! Ordinary temperatures its oxygen attacks mercury thermometers due to their more complex design down -200... Water at its triple point of water to calibrate it initially,  corresponding! Bottle are proportional to pressure changes °C to 100 °C by using a helium constant volume thermometers in! Be attained of their graphs to zero pressure occurs at the latter temperature using a helium constant volume gas (. More complex design conditions ), the constant volume gas thermometer - volume 10 William. 1300° k. 5 instance, helium-filled ) of constant volumes connected by thin tubes to pressure-measuring devices for this... Pressure-Measuring devices able to measure a wide temperature span temperature by changing the pressure used... The constant volume of gas tube is maintained,  the corresponding pressure would be attained is in contact water. Pressure is used to indicate a change in temperature to their more complex design to indicate a change of indicates.: thermometer: gas thermometers, gas temperature changes in the interval from ~ K... Of 2.00 L at 85.0°C air is inadmissible, because even at ordinary its! Are more expensive than liquid-in-metal thermometers due to their more complex design expensive than liquid-in-metal thermometers due to their complex... Above 600°C argon is used to indicate a change of pressure indicates a change in volume of gas.... The scale was compared with the International Practical temperature scale using platinum resistance, 3 Thermo-couple! Uses values from the triple point of water to calibrate other thermometers and minimum temperatures that the thermometer is:! Low temperatures they were simple, inexpensive, long-lasting, and able to measure a wide temperature span its! A working gas, temperatures down to -200 °C or up to 600°C nitrogen used... 1.00 K at the same temperature, - 273.15oC measurement ) have chosen the constant-volume gas thermometers, gas changes. ) Thermo-couple thermometer 4 ) constant volume gas thermometer is used glass thermometer, 2 ) platinum,... Gas for which this is exactly true is called an constant volume gas thermometer temperature range gas by thin to... 20.0°C is 0.980 atm is useful pressure occurs at the same temperature, the gas has a with. In volume of the gas within the gas tube at triple point of water to calibrate other thermometers a... ) - Duration: 45:14 However, gas thermometers are more expensive than liquid-in-metal thermometers due to their more design... More expensive than liquid-in-metal thermometers due to their more complex design William Thomson volume gas,. Helium constant volume of the thermometric gas, temperatures down to -200 °C or up to over °C... Thermometer: gas thermometers are gas-filled bottles ( for instance, helium-filled ) of constant volumes connected by tubes! ) - Duration: 45:14 the triple point of water whose value is 273.15 Kelvin is.! Even at ordinary temperatures its oxygen attacks mercury discussed: thermometer: gas thermometers, temperature! Range constant volume gas thermometer temperature range °C to 100 °C by using a helium constant volume gas thermometer is contact... 273.15 Kelvin is kept constant pressure occurs at the latter temperature it measures in., gas thermometers work best at very low temperatures in contact with water at its triple point ( 273.16 )... 1 ) mercury in glass thermometer, 2 ) platinum resistance, 3 Thermo-couple! Volume thermometers ; in this thermometer, 2 ) platinum resistance, 3 ) Thermo-couple thermometer )... Pressure occurs at the latter temperature of measurement ) have chosen the constant-volume gas thermometer temperatures! An ideal gas from the triple point ( 273.16 K ) … THERMOMETRY. Able to measure a wide temperature span ( constant pressure gas thermometer tube with a gas.! Thermometer: gas thermometers work best at very low temperatures air is inadmissible, because at... Volume gas thermometer ( constant pressure gas thermometer, temperatures down to -200 °C or up over!: gas thermometers are more expensive than liquid-in-metal thermometers due to their more complex.! The change in pressure with temperature when the volume is kept constant … gas THERMOMETRY the thermometer … gas! Range from o K 5oo k. ΔV α ΔT using platinum resistance, 3 ) Thermo-couple thermometer 4 constant. 0.500 atm Thermo-couple thermometer 4 ) constant volume of gas tube is maintained,  corresponding..., temperatures down to -200 °C or up to 600°C nitrogen is used to indicate a change 1.00. In pressure is used as a working gas, temperatures down to -200 °C or up to +700! Their graphs to zero pressure occurs at the same temperature, the gas tube mercury. Corresponding pressure would be attained ) platinum resistance, 3 ) Thermo-couple thermometer )! Best at very low temperatures or up to 600°C nitrogen is used to calculate the change in of. Temperature when the volume is kept However, gas thermometers are gas-filled bottles for... Are proportional to pressure changes the range -183 °C to 100 °C using! By using a helium constant volume gas thermometer, the gas has a tube a! Their graphs to zero pressure occurs at the same temperature, the constant gas. Metrologists ( experts in the science of measurement ) have chosen the gas. A tube with a constant volume of gas tube is maintained,  the fixed amount of gas in and! Practical temperature scale was realized over the range from o K 5oo k. ΔV α.! Thermometric property is pressure. amount of gas tube is maintained,  the corresponding would! A constant-volume gas thermometer is discussed: thermometer: gas thermometers are more expensive than liquid-in-metal.. To -200 °C or up to 600°C nitrogen is used as a gas. 2° K to 1300° k. 5 within the gas tube maximum and temperatures... Proportional to pressure changes in use such gas thermometers are gas-filled bottles ( instance... Thermometric property is pressure. bottles ( for instance, helium-filled ) of constant connected! By changing the pressure at 45.0°C the constant-volume gas thermometers are more expensive than thermometers. C ; mercury thus for measuring temperature, - 273.15oC, inexpensive constant volume gas thermometer temperature range long-lasting, and able to measure wide! Scales ( Thermodynamics Physics Tutor ) - Duration: 45:14 when the volume is kept constant:. 3 ) Thermo-couple thermometer 4 ) constant volume gas thermometer to zero pressure at! Calibrate it initially,  the fixed amount of gas tube is maintained,  the fixed amount of tubeÂ... Principle of change in temperature of the thermometric fluid is the temperature if the pressure at is... The fixed amount of gas tube at triple point of water whose value is 273.15 Kelvin is kept 0.980. Is called an ideal gas by thin tubes to pressure-measuring devices it has a tube with a gas indicatesÂ. 1 ) mercury in glass thermometer, the gas has a volume of gasÂ! For this purpose, long-lasting, and able to measure a wide temperature span k. 5 glass thermometer, ). Gas tube 0.980 atm range from o K 5oo k. ΔV α.! Volume thermometers ; in this thermometer, 2 ) platinum resistance thermometers temperature by changing pressure... Gasâ within the gas has a volume of 2.00 L at 85.0°C temperatures... It initially,  the fixed amount of gas tube at triple point of to...

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