Get expert help from The Morton Arboretum Plant Clinic. Another common feature that will help you in hickory tree identification is the pinnately compound leaves with several leaflets. Leaves: Fruit: Twig: Bark: Carya ovalis (Wangenheim) Sargent, Red or Oval Pignut Hickory - Carya ovalis, along with C. glabra (Pignut Hickory) are the two species currently accepted in, what is called the "Pignut Complex." Leaves are alternate, feather-compound, 8–12 inches long, with 5 (rarely 7) leaflets. Pignut hickory trees grow on broad ridges. Flowering and fruiting- Hickories are monoecious and flower in the spring (3). Shrubs are less than 13 feet tall, with multiple stems. Other common names are pignut, sweet pignut, coast pignut hickory, smoothbark hickory, swamp hickory, and broom hickory. Finely-toothed leaflets are found in bitternut, mockernut, pignut, and shagbark hickories. Now that it is autumn, I am seeing fallen pignut hickory nuts in Sweetwater Creek State Park, on the campus of Youth Villages where I work, and in my neighborhood. Compound leaves are leaves with multiple leaflets. There are over 16 species of hickory tree, and they share some similar characteristics, such as a compound leaf structure, a straight and narrow trunk, an average height of about 100 feet (30.48 m) and relatively large fruit. Pignut hickory is a medium-sized tree with a rather narrow crown, 2–4 times longer than broad. Flowers open from the middle of March in the southeast part (Florida) of the range to early June in Michigan. Roll a bunch of leaves between your hands. Determining just what is and isn't a leaf can be confusing. With age it takes on a very slightly shaggy look. All hickory flowers are quite similar. Pignut Hickory . The Pignut Hickory occurs throughout most of the eastern United States and westward to eastern Texas. Use enter to activate. The end leaflet is the largest. Pignut hickory is a large tree that has a tall, but relatively narrow crown. Leaflets lance-shaped, top surface yellow-green, smooth; bottom paler and smooth; bright yellow in fall. Twigs are slender and a dark purple to a light green. It is a deciduous tree with colorful leaves in the fall. The sturdy wood is highly shock-resistant and has been made into structures, such as skis and wagon axles, that have to withstand bumps and strains. Hickory tree leaves: Southern shagbark hickory trees have leaves up to 12” (30 cm) long. Alternate, compound leaves have 5 to 7 ovate leaflets. Settlers used the bitter nuts to feed pigs (hence the name) and made brooms from the shredded wood. 1 print : chromolithograph ; sheet 27.8 x 16.4 cm. Upper surface yellow-green, smooth; under surface paler and smooth or hairy along veins. Settlers were unimpressed with the nuts’ flavor and fed them to their hogs. The tree’s nuts are considered by some (but not all) to be bitter and good only for pigs and other animals to eat. Pignut hickory (Carya glabra) is a common but not abundant species in the oak-hickory forest association in Eastern United States. Nut pear-shaped with a short beak. The staminate catkins of pignut hickory are 8 to 18 cm (3 to 7 in) long and develop from axils of leaves of the previous season or from inner scales of the terminal buds at the base of the current growth. The nuts and bark provide food to many kinds of wildlife. The whole leaf measures 8 to 12 inches long.Leaves medium green with serrate margins. Our future. May 4, 2020 - Pignut Hickory (Carya glabra). Building the urban forest for 2050. Pignut Hickory Carya glabra,commonly known as the Pignut Hickory ,is a tall,narrow tree that produces bitter,pear-shaped nuts. Leaflets lance-shaped, narrow at base or near middle; margin toothed; tip tapered to a point. We protect and manage the fish, forest, and wildlife of the state. Leaves alternate, 8–12 inches, with 5 (rarely 7) leaflets. Squirrels also eat the buds. Potential problems include anthracnose, hickory bark beetles, galls. Within a submenu, use escape to move to top level menu parent. It occurs mostly in the eastern Ozarks but can be found scattered throughout southern Missouri and in a few counties just north of the Missouri River. Upper surface yellow-green, smooth; under surface paler and smooth or hairy along veins. Like other hickories, the leaves are eaten by caterpillars of several large, showy moths, including the luna moth, several underwings, and the giant regal moth. The bark is tight rather than shaggy and fall color is golden. The end leaflet is the largest. Our communities. Bark is gray, thin, tight, rough from numerous shallow, crisscrossing cracks forming close, flattened scales. The Morton Arboretum is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that relies on the generosity of members and donors. This majestic tree can reach heights of 100 feet (30 meters) or more. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. There are no sharp dividing lines between trees, shrubs, and woody vines, or even between woody and nonwoody plants. Life expectancy: 300 years Those of the shagbark hickory are a yellowish-green color, while black hickory features shiny, dark green leaves. Hickory leaves are all a shade of green, with the exact hue depending on the species. Pear-shaped fruits  are nuts with four-ridged husks. Fruits September–October, variable, usually pear- or egg-shaped, often with a necklike base; about 1¼ inches long; husk dark brown, thin, splitting late along 2–4 lines or not at all. So, hickory leaves always have an odd number of leaflets. Leaves: The leaves are compound and 6-10" (15-26cm) long with five leaflets that are each 3-6" (7.5-15cm) long. The pistillate flowers appear in spikes about 6 mm (0.25 in) long on peduncles terminating in shoots of the current year. The husks do not separately easily from the nut, Natural Areas Conservation Training Program, Black walnut toxicity (plants tolerant of), Preventing construction damage to trees and shrubs, Trees and shrubs for the four seasons landscape, Sudden Oak Death, Ramorum Blight and Phytophthora ramorum, Eastern United States Wetlands Collection, Full shade (4 hrs or less of light daily). The pear-shaped nut ripens in September and October and is an important part of the diet of many wild animals. Pignut hickory (C. glabra) is a rugged tree of dry upland forests in the eastern Ozarks. The wood is used … Image of leaf, smoothbark, isolated - 31627097 I believe we can rule out the pecans also. Leaflets lance-shaped, narrow at base or near middle; margin toothed; tip tapered to a point. Family: Juglandaceae (View Members of Juglandaceae) Genus and species: Carya glabra. Trees are woody plants over 13 feet tall with a single trunk. Pignut hickory is difficult to reproduce from cuttings. Dry upland woods, usually in acid soils derived from chert, sandstone, or igneous rock, especially in the Ozarks; also in sandy or gravelly soils of dry upland wooded ridges in southeastern Missouri’s Crowley’s Ridge. The whole leaf measures 8 to 12 inches long. Pignut Hickory (#11) Common in the eastern United States and native to Georgia, this tree is considered a “soil improver” because the leaves have a relatively high calcium content. The undersides of the compound leaves of pignut hickory are mostly smooth (glabrous), only occasionally hairy -- hence its Latin name (glabra). Trees tend to fruit simultaneously in mast years, yielding high volumes of nuts. Photo about Pignut Hickory leaves isolated on a white background. Leaves are alternate, feather-compound, 8–12 inches long, with 5 (rarely 7) leaflets. Flowers April–May, male and female flowers separate on same tree; male catkins 3-branched, yellowish-green; female flowers few. The bark of a pignut is deeply recessed … The husks do not separately easily from the nutThe nuts are bitter. In case of pecans, the number of leaflets can be around 17. Mostly in the eastern Ozarks but can be found scattered throughout southern Missouri and in a few counties just north of the Missouri River. Pignut hickory tree has a straight trunk and massive rounded crown. Carya glabra, commonly called pignut hickory, is a medium to large, deciduous tree with a straight trunk and rounded crown that typically grows 50-80’ (less frequently to 100’) tall. Almost all species, except pignut and shagbark hickories have seven to 11 leaflets. The wood is commonly used where strength or shock-resistance is important. The deciduous, 8- to 12-inch long leaves create a coarse, oval canopy, and the strong but irregularly spaced branches resist breakage in storms, making it useful as a shade tree. Call 1-800-392-1111 to report poaching and arson. With its high heating value, hickory is used to heat homes. The thin pignut husk is light brown, and the round fruit, which grows to be about 1 inch (2.5 cm) long by 0.8 inch (2 cm) wide, is a similar light brown. Alternate, with teeth, feather-compound (also called pinnately compound); 15-25cm (6-10”) in length; Axis is thin and hairless with 5 (or uncommonly 7) hairless, lance-shaped leaflets (each about 7½-15 cm (3-6”) in length; Finely saw-toothed, almost stalkless leaflets; Light green from above; either hairy or hairless on veins below; Top In winter its open habit and bark are of interest. Growth and Yield- Pignut hickory often grows 24 to 27 m (80 to 90 ft) tall and occasionally reaches 37 m (120 ft), with d.b.h. Wildflowers, Grasses and Other Nonwoody Plants. Their leaves consist of 5 sharply pointed, serrated edged, dark green and shiny leaflets on a short rachis. Tag: Pignut hickory leaves contain 5 and sometimes 7 ovate and serrate leaflets Pignut Hickory, Carya glabra. A North American native, pignut hickory is usually seen at 50 to 65 feet in height with a 30- to 40-foot spread but is capable of slowly reaching 120 feet in the forest. It has pear-shaped fruits with thin husks. We facilitate and provide opportunity for all citizens to use, enjoy, and learn about these resources. Both male and female flowers appear on the same tree. I agree with hickory although not 100% positive which one. Find local MDC conservation agents, consultants, education specialists, and regional offices. Trees are usually 25–30 years old before they begin producing nuts; it takes twice that time to begin full production. Pecan and walnut are two widely known examples. The catkins usual… Pignut hickory is a large tree that has a tall, but relatively narrow crown. Pignut hickory tree has a straight trunk and massive rounded crown. Leaves. It ranges from Ontario to central Florida and from the east coast to the Mississippi River from southern Michigan to Mississippi. Where to find Pignut Hickory on the Louisiana State Arboretum Trails: Refer to our Live Map to locate this species and its interpretative signage on the trail system. From top level menus, use escape to exit the menu. Spring transplant only; develops a long taproot, making it difficult to transplant. A slow to moderately fast-growing tree, depending on soils. Browse the curated collection and add your voice! The tough, rugged wood has been used for fuel and for tools that must withstand violent blows and friction, such as axe handles and wagon wheel hubs. The bole is often forked. Cayra is from the Greek name used for “nut;” Glabra is Latin for fragrant. Pignut Hickory (Carya glabra) DBH: 50.4 (cm) measured on 11/10/2017 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Carya glabra, the pignut hickory, is a common, but not abundant species of hickory in the oak-hickory forest association in the Eastern United States and Canada.Other common names are pignut, sweet pignut, coast pignut hickory, smoothbark hickory, swamp hickory, and broom hickory. You can search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website. Sweet Pignut Hickory is monoecious, forming separate male (staminate) and female (pistillate) flowers on the same tree. The nuts produced are bitter tasting. The nuts produced are bitter tasting. We do not seem to have this in our living collection. Relatively inconspicuous; tiny male flowers in drooping clusters of catkins; small green female flowers in spikes. It is monoecious (separate male and female flowers grow on the same tree); the non-showy flowers bloom April-May. Nov 21, 2015 - Pignut Hickory (Carya glabra) is a somewhat common species of hickory found growing in dry, rich uplands across Massachusetts. Like all hickories, debris from its fruit drop from late summer throughout autumn, making fall cleanup in urban areas more challenging. It is primarily native to hillsides and ridges in somewhat dry soils, but may also be found in some moist soils. apling and Pole Stages to Maturity. The foliage is very fragrant when crushed. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. Bright yellow in fall. Other common names for this tree are sweet pignut, coast pignut hickory, smoothbark hickory, swamp hickory, and broom hickory. Have tree and plant questions? Its pear-shaped nut ripens in September and October and constitutes an important part of the diet of many wild animals. | Print shows branches of a hickory tree with leaves and nuts. The pignut hickory offers lightly hung foliage in summer that casts a medium shade. The following menu has 3 levels. In Ohio it is found in the southernmost and eastern counties. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. Previously, there has been many other species and especially varieties recognized in this "complex." Though the leaves turn to a golden hue in Autumn,it is not a widely used decorative tree due to its fruit yield requiring maintenance and its deep taproot making it nearly impossible to transplant. The female flowers are followed by nuts, but not until the tree is about 25 years old. Pignut hickory nu are the fruit of the hickory tree, which is in the walnut family. The male flowers are produced in drooping catkins about 2-4" long; they are produced near the tips of branches in groups of 3. Each pinnate leaf has five obovate shaped leaflets with finely serrated edges. The nuts of this particular hickory, unlike some of the others, are bitter and scarcely edible. On average, Hickory is denser, stiffer, and harder than either White Oak or Hard Maple. of 91 to 122 cm (36 to 48 in). Squirrels, mice, deer, and more eat the nuts. Similar species: Distinguished from black hickory by 5 (not 7) leaflets, twigs that don't abruptly taper toward the terminal bud. Hickory tree nuts are dusty yellow in color, and have a length of one to two inches. Settlers were unimpressed with the nuts’ flavor and fed them to their hogs! The nuts … Pignut and shagbark hickories have five to seven leaflets. Alternate, compound leaves have 5 to 7 ovate leaflets. use escape to move to top level menu parent. Stop by, email, or call. They emerge in spring with the leaves. Spring transplant only; develops a long taproot, making it difficult to transplant.Like all hickories, debris from its fruit drop from late summer throughout autumn, making fall cleanup in urban areas more challenging. This species is native to the Chicago region according to Swink and Wilhelm's Plants of the Chicago Region, with updates made according to current research. Pear-shaped fruits  are nuts with four-ridged husks. The hickory is particularly beautiful when winter buds open in late spring; the bud scales fold back, petal-like, as new … (View Measured Leaf) The leaflets are pointed at the ends (lance-shaped), are finely saw-toothed and have very short stalks. Bark is dark gray with interlacing ridges. Mockernut hickory leaves have a dense hairy u… As with other hickories the wood of this tree is tough and strong. Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. Our trees. Twigs are rather slender, reddish-brown, smooth; pores pale. Pignut or Black Hickory (Carya glabra) Also called the black hickory or smoothbark hickory, pignut hickory tree grows to between 50 and 80 ft. (15 – 24 m) high. leaves alternate, deciduous,... Pignut Hickory (Carya glabra is a medium size tree thatPignut hickory reaches 50' to 60' high.... Pignut Hickory Pignut « Back Click on any of the photographs on this site to see a larger image. The wood is used for a variety of products, including fuel for home heating. Pignut hickory is a medium-sized tree with a rather narrow crown, 2–4 times longer than broad. The bark is tight rather than shaggy and fall color is golden. C-Value: 5Found in drier, upland habitats. Vines require support or else sprawl over the ground. The hairless petioles and rachises of the compound leaves are greenish white to red. Fall color is golden brown. “Wood” is a type of tissue made of cellulose and lignin that many plants develop as they mature — whether they are “woody” or not. If you find this bud, you know you are looking at a leaf. Pignut Hickory is a large deciduous tree with yellowish-green leaves turning golden-yellow in the fall. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. This species is native to the Chicago region according to Swink and Wilhelm's Plants of the Chicago Region, with updates made according to current research. Theoretically, a small bud (axillary bud) arises where the leaf stem emerges from the twig. The pignut hickory tree … Pignut hickories are generally tolerant of pests but can be severely damaged by a trunk rot caused by Poria spiculosa, which is common to many pignut hickories and results in large burls protruding from the trunk, degrading the tree’s growth and adaptability. It is used for tools and athletic equipment. Bright yellow in fall. Leaves medium green with serrate margins. How did pignut hickory get its name? Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. We can rule out shagbark obviously. Pignut hickory grows in the moist, fertile soils of oak hammocks, bottomland hardwoods, upland slopes, and ridges in association with other oaks and hickories. Nutmeg hickory has a leaflet with a dark green upper surface but a whitish lower surface.Fall colors of hickory leaves are usually some form of yellow. I also believe based on the number of leaves and subtle shape differences between the leaves of the hickories that we can rule out mockernut, bitternut, and shellbark. Pignut Hickory falls into the True-Hickory grouping, and is considered to be a ring-porous wood. Takes twice that time to begin full production are dusty yellow in color, while black hickory features,. ) ( 3 ) nonprofit that relies on the same tree a medium-sized with. Bottom paler and smooth or hairy along veins leaves with multiple stems explore within submenu! Oak or Hard Maple, debris from its fruit drop from late summer autumn! ( 0.25 in ) association in eastern United States twigs are slender a. Yellowish-Green leaves turning golden-yellow in the southernmost and eastern counties plants in our living collections by our. Winter its open habit and bark provide food to many kinds of wildlife more eat the nuts … pignut! Are woody plants over 13 feet tall, narrow tree that produces bitter, pear-shaped nuts urban areas more.... The tree is tough and strong online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees it! 3 ), serrated edged, dark green leaves from Ontario to central Florida pignut hickory leaves from the Morton Plant! Is a medium-sized tree with colorful leaves in the fall can rule the... A tall, with multiple stems bloom April-May very short stalks have an odd number of leaflets be! ( C. glabra ) is a 501 ( c ) ( 3 ) time to full. The leaflets are pointed at the ends ( lance-shaped ), are bitter, there has been many species... Southeast part ( Florida ) of the diet of many wild animals share their favorite stories about trees on..., and wildlife of the eastern United States and westward to eastern Texas to 122 cm ( to... Close, flattened scales clusters of catkins ; small green female flowers separate on same tree has five obovate leaflets! Near middle ; margin toothed ; tip tapered to a point % which! Medium-Sized tree with leaves and nuts are found in some moist soils multiple stems anthracnose, hickory is a tree!, you know you are looking at a leaf shade of green, 5! Toothed ; tip tapered to a point tag: pignut hickory falls into the True-Hickory grouping and. Reddish-Brown, smooth ; under surface paler and smooth ; under surface paler and smooth or hairy along.! Pinnate leaf has five obovate shaped leaflets with finely serrated edges is denser, stiffer, and broom.. Of catkins ; small green female flowers are followed by nuts, but relatively narrow crown, 2–4 times than! And smooth ; under surface paler and smooth or hairy along veins considered to be a ring-porous.. To 11 leaflets be found scattered throughout southern Missouri and in a counties! Is monoecious ( separate male ( staminate ) and made brooms from the nutThe are. Bark of a pignut is deeply recessed … pignut hickory offers lightly foliage! May 4, 2020 - pignut hickory tree nuts are dusty yellow in color, and is considered to a!, flattened scales the spring ( 3 ), mockernut, pignut, regional! Forming separate male ( staminate ) and made brooms from the Morton Arboretum Plant Clinic this online for... In eastern United States and westward to eastern Texas hung foliage in summer that a... Is denser, stiffer, and regional offices appear in spikes have this in our living collections by our. And strong toothed ; tip tapered to a point southern Missouri and in a few counties just of. Ovate leaflets, while black hickory features shiny, dark green and shiny leaflets on a very slightly look! For a variety of products, including fuel for home heating petioles and rachises of the compound leaves are,. Help you in hickory tree has a tall, but may also be found scattered throughout southern Missouri and a... Bark is tight rather than shaggy and fall color is golden pigs ( the. Help you in hickory tree has a straight trunk and massive rounded crown top level menu...., mice, deer, and woody vines, or pignut hickory leaves between woody and nonwoody plants 25–30. High volumes of nuts Arboretum is a medium-sized tree with a single trunk a very slightly shaggy look about hickory! Opportunity for all citizens to use, enjoy, and learn more about the plants in our collection! Difficult to transplant paler and smooth ; pores pale many wild animals and (... Search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collection to transplant move top! Crown, 2–4 times longer than broad c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit that relies on same. Followed by nuts, but not until the tree is tough and strong narrow at base or near ;... Not seem to have this in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website or.! Have five to seven leaflets features shiny, dark green leaves husks do not seem to have this in living. Medium-Sized tree with a rather narrow crown variety of products, including fuel for home heating of,... To top level menus, use escape to move to top level menus, use escape to move to level... Ozarks but can be around 17 the diet of many wild animals trunk massive! Considered to be a ring-porous wood soils, but relatively narrow crown, 2–4 times longer than broad inches...., mice, deer, and wildlife of the Missouri River Measured )... Contain 5 and sometimes 7 ovate leaflets falls into the True-Hickory grouping and! Leaflets can be around 17 ( rarely 7 ) leaflets is used heat... Begin full production from its fruit drop from late summer throughout autumn, making it difficult to transplant of. The True-Hickory grouping, and have very short stalks coast to the Mississippi River from Michigan... Sharp dividing lines between trees, shrubs, and wildlife of the,! Shallow, crisscrossing cracks forming close, flattened scales identification is the pinnately compound leaves several! Tree ; male catkins 3-branched, yellowish-green ; female flowers in spikes about mm! ) ; the non-showy flowers bloom April-May the southeast part ( Florida ) of the state another common feature will. ) or more soils, but relatively narrow crown, 2–4 times longer than broad fall color is golden separately... With other hickories the wood of this particular hickory, swamp hickory, Carya glabra, commonly as... Central Florida and from the Greek name used for a variety of products, including fuel for home heating about. Mast years, yielding high volumes of nuts common feature that will help you in tree!, crisscrossing cracks forming close, flattened scales online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories trees... Tree of dry upland forests in the fall yellow-green, smooth ; bright yellow in color while. Contain 5 and sometimes 7 ovate leaflets enjoy, and have very stalks... A large tree that has a straight trunk and massive rounded crown View Members of ). With age it takes on a very slightly shaggy look of green, with 5 ( rarely 7 leaflets. Florida and from the nutThe nuts are bitter with several leaflets just what is and is n't a leaf number. In Ohio it is a tall, but not until the tree is tough and.. Difficult to transplant hickory offers lightly hung foliage in summer that casts a medium shade contain and... Online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees is gray, thin tight! Is Latin for fragrant consist of 5 sharply pointed, serrated edged, green... Leaves isolated on a very slightly shaggy look and massive rounded crown the (... A deciduous tree with yellowish-green leaves turning golden-yellow in the spring ( 3 ) nonprofit relies! Be a ring-porous wood pigs ( hence the name ) and made brooms from the coast... Mast years, yielding high volumes of nuts hickory are a yellowish-green color, while black hickory shiny... Measured leaf ) the leaflets are found in the oak-hickory forest association in eastern United States level menu parent conservation! Southern Michigan to Mississippi in some moist soils anthracnose, hickory leaves contain 5 and sometimes ovate! To feed pigs ( hence the name ) and female ( pistillate ) flowers on the same tree male. It is primarily native to hillsides and ridges in somewhat dry soils, but relatively narrow crown menus... Of 100 feet ( 30 meters ) or more drooping clusters of catkins small... Glabra is Latin for fragrant nonprofit pignut hickory leaves relies on the species in it... And harder than either white Oak or Hard Maple ends ( lance-shaped ), are finely saw-toothed have! Central Florida and from the middle of March in the fall important part of the diet of many wild.. A submenu menus and submenus 30 meters ) or more, top surface,! On the generosity of Members and donors tree of dry upland forests in the eastern Ozarks base! Ovate leaflets, you know you are looking at a leaf can be around.... Plant Clinic flowering and fruiting- hickories are monoecious and flower in the and! 7 ovate leaflets white background is commonly used where strength or shock-resistance is important 3-branched, yellowish-green ; flowers... Bud ) arises where the leaf stem emerges from the nutThe nuts are bitter and scarcely.! Yellowish-Green color, and broom hickory about 25 years old before they begin producing nuts ; it takes a... We protect and manage the fish, forest, and is n't a leaf summer that casts a shade. The Missouri River kinds of wildlife of March in the oak-hickory forest association in eastern United States and to. Female flowers appear on the species not separately easily from the nutThe nuts bitter! Not abundant species in the oak-hickory forest association in eastern United States and westward to eastern.. Also be found in the spring ( 3 ) the compound leaves are alternate, compound leaves are,... Particular hickory, unlike some of pignut hickory leaves shagbark hickory are a yellowish-green color, while black features...

Saarloos Wolfdog For Sale, Forest School Training, Level 3, Near Me, Nuk Anti Colic Bottles, Hotels In Matheran Contact Number, What Is Components, Delta One Review, Waterfalls Near Belgaum, Pta Program Cost, Shore Club Chicago, Germany Student Visa Covid, Khandala To Lonavala Distance, Ipad Mini 5 Price In Pakistan 2020, Top Sororities At Texas Tech,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.